An intimidating ornament in a female pipefish

In another experiment, a focal female could see 1 stimulus female and 1 stimulus male, the latter 2 being unaware of each other.The ornament of the stimulus female was manipulated, either strengthened by being painted black or left unaltered by being sham-painted.

an intimidating ornament in a female pipefish-17

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One possibility is that the 'armament-ornament' model - which proposes that traits used primarily in male-male contests are also co-opted by females as indicators of male quality - can be extended to explain signal evolution in both sexes.

We examine this idea by testing the function of acoustic signals in two species of duetting antbirds.

These results indicate that 'armament-ornament' processes may operate in reciprocal format, potentially explaining widespread mutual ornamentation in species with elevated intrasexual competition for resources.