In 1919, he instituted the appointment of a director in each congregation, and a year later all members were instructed to report their weekly preaching activity to the Brooklyn headquarters.
Significant changes in doctrine and administration were regularly introduced during Rutherford's twenty-five years as president, including the 1920 announcement that the Jewish patriarchs (such as Abraham and Isaac) would be resurrected in 1925, marking the beginning of Christ's thousand-year earthly Kingdom.
The claims are rejected by the religion's leaders, and some have been disputed by courts and religious scholars.
During the course of his ministry, Russell disputed many beliefs of mainstream Christianity including immortality of the soul, hellfire, predestination, the fleshly return of Jesus Christ, the Trinity, and the burning up of the world. Barbour; later that year they jointly produced the book Three Worlds, which combined restitutionist views with end time prophecy.
Persistent legal challenges by Jehovah's Witnesses have influenced legislation related to civil rights in several countries.