In marketing, word-of-mouth communication (WOM) involves the passing of information between a non-commercial communicator (i.e.
someone who is not rewarded) and a receiver concerning a brand, a product, or a service.
Word-of-mouth marketing implies that an organisation takes active steps to encourage WOM (e.g.
offering a reward to the WOM sender), whereas normal WOM implies that the sender is not rewarded.
e Referral is define as a process by which consumers pass along a company’s marketing message and/or their product or service evaluations to their close allies, e.g.
friends, family members, colleagues and group members via the internet.
Storytelling often involves improvisation or embellishment. Stories or narratives have been shared in every culture as a means of entertainment, education, cultural preservation and in order to instill moral values.