Some of the resisting tribes or leaders are commemorated in place names, including Caracas, Chacao, and Los Teques.
The early colonial settlements focused on the northern coast, Spain's eastern Venezuelan settlements were incorporated into New Andalusia Province.
In 1811, it became one of the first Spanish-American colonies to declare independence, which was not securely established until 1821, when Venezuela was a department of the federal republic of Gran Colombia.
It gained full independence as a separate country in 1830.
Since the discovery of oil in the early 20th century, Venezuela has the world's largest oil reserves and has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil.